Theme 2 – Exposure
The exposure theme is comprised of four work packages – WP5, WP6, WP7 and WP8 – aimed at developing tools and methods for assessment of release of and human (occupational and consumer) and environmental exposure to engineered nanomaterials. Prof Martie van Tongeren, IOM, the UK, acts as the exposure theme leader in MARINA.
Release scenarios: Occupational, Consumer and Environment (WP5)
(WP Leader: Dr. Thomas Kuhlbusch, Germany) – development of integrated tool to assess and test the likeliness of ENM release.
- In WP5, a framework of release testing and assessment of likeliness of release over the whole product life cycle was (is) developed. The developments were based on a literature review on ENM releases over the life cycle, development and assessment of test set-ups for different release processes (sanding, drilling, sawing), testing of MARINA case ENM-materials for weathering, development and assessment of dustiness and deagglomeration test stands. All the information were than used a) for the set-up of a framework for release for (regulatory and safety assessment purposes) and b) to derive information of relevant points of releases to be linked with WP7 (Environmental Fate/Behaviour Assessment).
Processes and Activities related to NM Lifecycle (PDF, 5.5 MB)
Occupational and Consumer Exposure Assessment (WP6)
(WP Leader: Prof. Martie van Tongeren/Dr Araceli Sanchez Jimenez, IOM, UK) – development of a tiered human risk assessment methodology to be included in the risk assessment methodology developed in WP12
- In WP6, a tiered exposure assessment approach is (being) developed that matches the exposure information requirements for the risk assessment developed in WP12. A Exposure Scenario Library has been developed where contextual and measurement data can be used to read-across. Inhalation exposure models used for conventional chemicals have been reviewed for their applicability to nanomaterials. Two models ART (Advance Reach Tool) and Stoffenmanager-Nano have been evaluated with measurement data.
Environmental Fate/Behaviour Assessment (WP7)
(WP Leader: Prof. Dr. Willie Peijnenburg, The Netherlands) – development of modules to assess the environmental fate and the potential for bioaccumulation of ENM.
- In WP7, a module is developed that combines experimental data and model approaches regarding the ENM and matrices characteristics that determine the fate/behavior of specific ENM in surface water, sediment, soil, and sewage sludge. Thereupon, a protocol is developed to assess the potential for bioaccumulation and a module is developed to assess ENM properties that define their potential to bioaccumulate.
Environmental Exposure Assessment (WP8)
(WP Leader: Prof. Dr. Bernd Nowack, Switzerland) – development of tools to improve exposure modeling and analysis of ENM in natural systems.
- In WP8, environmental fate models for ENM were developed based on dynamic material flow modelling to obtain a comprehensive understanding of ENM flows and exposure in the environment. In the experimental part, methods for trace ENM analysis in complex environmental matrices based on single particle ICP-MS were developed and a multi- method analysis of ENM in samples from the environment was performed.